Monday, April 8, 2013

Early Victorian Wedding Customs (1837-1860)

Victorian Wedding Dress. Photo Credit: Squidoo.

The year is 1837, and a new Queen sits on Great Britain’s throne. Victoria will soon become the primary influence on wedding customs in Europe and America and will remain so for the next 75 years.

The years of her long reign will eventually be categorized into three distinct fashion periods, the first of which is marked by the illustrious wedding of the Queen to her beloved Albert. Though many customs endured throughout the 1800s, details like wedding party attire, colors and decorations, venues, and jewelry changed with the passing of each decade.

The Ceremony & Breakfast

The Early Victorian Era is best known for ostentatious and romantic flourishes in everything from literature to fashion and jewelry design. Wedding customs were no exception. Drawing from some of the enduring traditions of the late Georgian Era, as well as from some of the new elements introduced by Queen Victoria during her wedding to Prince Albert in 1840.

During these first years of Victoria’s reign, weddings would slowly adopt the elements she included in her Royal Wedding. During the 1840s, six o’clock in the evening was the customary time for private royal weddings. Thinking always of her adoring subjects (or perhaps wisely taking her Prime Minister’s advice), Queen Victoria decided upon a very public ceremony to begin at noon.

English law dictated that non-royal weddings were to be held only in the morning, often commencing just before noon in the bride’s parish church. The wedding party would then retire directly afterwards to the home of the bride’s parents for the commencement of the customary wedding breakfast. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert did the same, albeit on a very grand scale. Their wedding breakfast took place at Buckingham Palace, where her mother did indeed reside.

The Wedding Dress

Of course, the most important Early Victorian wedding detail was the wedding dress, followed in importance by the groom’s attire and the attire of their attendants. The trend toward all-white weddings was in the making, though it would be some time before white wedding dresses would become fashionable.

It began with Queen Victoria’s decision to depart form the customary Royal silver for her gown. It was further established in the late 1850s, when Queen Victoria insisted that the next two Royal brides (Princess Alexandra and Princess Alice) follow her lead and wear a white silk gown from Spitalfields with white Honiton lace and white orange blossoms.

The Queen's insistence on white wedding dresses for her royal progeny were rooted in her mourning and hopeless romanticism. Always trying to both avoid and recreate her happiest moments with Albert, she used her son and daughter's wedding to relive her own wedding. Her second reason was rooted in her love of Charles Dickens and her over-identification with the poor and downtrodden. Since her wedding in 1840, she used every opportunity to revive two downtrodden areas of London, Spitalfields and Beer. Her insistence on white Spitalfields satin and Honiton lace from Beer would supply these communities with work and income for months.

Since white fabric was harder to come by and was fairly impractical for most Early Victorian ladies, who could not afford to wear a dress only once, it would take a couple of decades for white wedding gowns to become the norm. For this reason, many early 1800s brides wore blue, soft green, cream, or ivory dresses. Some colonial brides ever wore brown or black gowns. The blue wedding dress was a holdover from Georgian Era traditions, when blue stood as the symbol of purity. These gowns, simple and without much embellishment, were worn later for daily wear or for Court presentation. 

Depending on the resources available to the bride and her family, the dress might have been made of organdy, linen, silk, or cashmere, and it may have included tulle, gauze, or lace to accentuate the hemlines, shoulders, collar, and/or sleeves. No matter which materials were chosen, the Early Victorian wedding dress consisted of a form-fitting bodice with its trim waistline tucked into a full flowing skirt worn over hoops and petticoats.

To complete the effect, the early-18th century bride wore embroidered white silk stockings and ballet-like slippers made of white satin, brocade, or white kid with ribbons at the instep for securing to the ankles. In her gloved hands, she carried a white handkerchief embroidered with her prenuptial initials and a beautiful bouquet of garden herbs and flowers, such as roses or peonies, giving way toward the end of the period to white orange blossoms.

The Veil

Over her coiffed hair, the bride, all dressed in white, would wear a white wreath of flowers, most likely orange blossoms by the end of the period. An attendant would attach her veil to the back of this garland of flowers. Her veil would have been long and white, made from a thin gauzy material such as gauze, sheer cotton, or Brussels lace (later Honiton lace).

Though in 1840 Queen Victoria broke with tradition and chose a waist-length veil, most brides in the early 1800s wore full-length veils which trailed behind them like an angelic cloud. In some Victorian portraits, the veil appears to create the appearance of a gauzy booth where the bride hides away until her maturity is made complete by the exchanging of the vows. At this time, the veil was worn as a coronet around the bride’s head and shoulders, cascading down her back, not covering her face. After the ceremony, many brides converted their veil to a shawl which they most likely wore during the wedding breakfast.

by Angela Magnotti Andrews


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Saturday, April 6, 2013

Empress Josephine’s “Burning of Troy” Opal


This stunning example of a high-quality black opal, and possibly affords a glimpse of what it must have been like to gaze upon the most glorious opal known to man at the turn of the 19th century. Though currently lost to public record, this famous opal of which I speak once belonged to Napoleon Bonaparte I's beloved Empress Josephine de Beauharnais. Called the Burning of Troy opal, there appears to be no photograph or drawing of the (alleged) 700-carat stone, but there is much discussion about it throughout the historical record.
The Burning of Troy draws its name from the fabled flashing blaze of fire which was said to have burned so brightly within its belly that it appeared to sizzle upon its surface. Though no one contests the existence of this illustrious gemstone, the journey of the Burning of Troy opal once it left Empress Josephine's possession is shrouded in mystery. Considering how frequently it's discussed*, very little seems to really be known about it. Unfortunately, as is the case with many historied gemstones, the sparse accounts inspire far more questions than answers. Until the 20th century, historians believed the opal hailed from the Czerwenitz Mines of Hungary, where most of Europe's opals were mined. However, experts now agree that the black-backed black opal had to have come from Honduras, which makes its journey into Napoleon's French hands even more intriguing. While many of the jewels Napoleon gave to his wife came from Italy as gifts or spoils of war, so far this writer has been unable to confirm when or where Napoleon acquired the stunning black opal.

 Historians also agree that after Empress Josephine's death in 1814, the gemstone was "lost" for nearly 100 years. In all likelihood, it wasn't lost, but instead kept safe among the other heaps of jewels she bequeathed to her children upon her death. It makes sense that this opal would not have been worn publicly by subsequent heirs, as it was their general custom to keep these precious gems in display cases in the palace. Furthermore, the popularity of opal waxed and waned with the superstitions of the times. Her granddaughter-in-law, Empress Eugenie, the logical choice for who possessed it during its time of obscurity, was terrified to wear opals and would most certainly have kept it under lock and key. Current historians relate that the fiery black opal reappeared in Vienna, Austria, sometime before World War I, where it was supposedly purchased from an anonymous seller by the city. These same historians relate that city officials were offered 24,000 lira* for the gem at the end of World War I. Despite their depleted financial state after the war, the Austrians held onto their prized opal. According to the accounts, they would hold onto it for at least another 20 years, after which, at the outbreak of World War II (1939), the opal once again appears to have vanished without a (public) trace. The glorious stone has remained hidden from public view since. I am intrigued by the histories of the Burning of Troy written between 1878 and 1917. They call into question current historical "facts," and leave in their wake many more unanswered questions, and an enticing trail to follow at some point in the future. Here are some excerpts from the time:
"The Empress Josephine's opal, called the Burning of Troy, from the innumerable red flames blazing on its surface, was considered to be the finest stone of modern times, but its present owner is unknown." ~Excerpt from The British Quarterly Review, 1878.
"In the Museum of Vienna is an opal of extraordinary size and beauty, for which Lira 50,000 has been refused." ~The next sentence in The British Quarterly Review, 1878.
"The largest opal in the world reposes in the Imperial Cabinet in Vienna. It is uncut, of 3,000 carats, and was found in the Czerwenitza Mines of Hungary, where the finest opals come from." ~Excerpt from The Mentor, 1917
"The Empress Eugenie was one of those who had a dread of the opals' evil influence. Perhaps she connected with it the ill-fate of another Bonaparte Empress, Josephine, who owned the most wonderful opal of her time. So brilliant were its fires that it was called The Burning of Troy." ~Excerpt from the same article in The Mentor, 1917, two paragraphs later.
Both accounts represent topical discussions of opals in general, and both reference the opal on display in Vienna and The Burning of Troy opal as if they are completely separate. Note that the one writer refers to the opal on display in Vienna as a 3,000-carat opal, whereas the Burning of Troy is (fairly) well documented as (at least believed to be) a 700-carat stone. Note also that the the dates line up sufficiently to draw a reasonable conclusion that the two stones might be the same stone, though there is a huge discrepancy in the size of the stones in question. So far, this researcher has been unable to discern whether these stones truly are one and the same, or whether a writer (or more than one writer) made a huge leap and merged two opals into one; something which is so easy to do when piecing together fragments of history to make a whole. Own a piece of fine opal jewelry and start your own legend. *Some accounts claim 50,000 lira were offered. It is hard to know which is the correct amount.

Friday, April 5, 2013

Formation of Amethyst

Amethysts are a variation of quartz crystal, chemical name silicon dioxide (SiO2). Though the earth is home to an ample supply of quartz in various colors, amethysts remain one of the most prized in the family and Amethyst Jewelry is a staple in most collections. In Firefly Guide to Gems, Cally Oldershaw affirms that amethyst “sets the standard for all other purple gemstones.”

As with all quartz, amethyst finds its origins in the oozing liquid roiling at the center of the earth. Unlike other precious gemstones, quartz does not require a great amount of heat or pressure to form. In fact, it comes forth during the rising and cooling process of magma, when the resulting alluvial flows fill veins and gas cavities nearer to the surface of the earth. These highly pressurized hydrothermal solutions consist mostly of extremely hot water mixed with sulfides, silica, and other minerals.


 Anytime silica combines with oxygen, silicon dioxide forms. The abundance of both silica and oxygen in these hydrothermal solutions explains why quartz is so abundant in the earth and why it is found in all types of rocks. When the siliceous brews includes uranium, the resulting purple crystals are what geologists call amethyst.


 In its soluble form, silicon dioxide either flows swiftly into a cavity or drips slowly layer upon layer atop itself. If the flow of this aqueous liquid surges into cavities or veins, the quartz hardens and form as druse. Amethyst is most often found in geodes or veins in this druse form. However, if it drips slowly into layers, amethyst will grow hexagonally from its base, forming the crystal stalactites jewelers and collectors covet.

1. Oldershaw, Cally. Firefly Guide to Gems (Canada: Firefly Books Ltd, 2003), 154-155.
2. The Quartz Page. "Amethyst." Last modified November 13, 2011.
3. Aldrich, Kate. "How Are Amethyst Geodes Formed?" eHow. Accessed May 15, 2012.
4. Martin, Patricia Jean. "The magic of Rocks and Stones: Amethyst." Controverscial. Accessed May 15, 2012.